MongoDB is basically defined as a free and open source cross platform database that is document oriented. Despite being classified as a NoSQL database, the MongoDB hosts dynamic schemas in BSON format instead of the conventional table based relational database following a JSON format. Owing to this BSON format, the MongoDB efficiently integrates data generated by various kinds of applications through an easier and faster process.
MongoDB aims at simplifying development of applications through pre-configured, highly available and top performing MongoDB instances offered in the cloud that are largely scalable.
Features Of MongoDB:-
1. Scales Dynamically
With the help of sharding, the MongoDB scales horizontally. A shard key is chosen by a user that ascertains how the distribution process of the data in a collection will be conducted. Based on this shard key, the data gets split into ranges and is dispersed across various shards. MongoDB is designed to run over several servers and balances the load or duplicates the data to ensure no downtime in case of system failure. Being easy to deploy, MongoDB allows adding of new machines to an existing database.
2. Ad Hoc Queries
MongoDB supports range and field queries apart from regular expression searches. Specific field of documents can be returned from the queries and comprise Java script functions as defined by the user. MongoDB also allows configuration of queries to get an ad hoc sample of results of a particular size.
Integrated with replica sets, the MongoDB stores two or more copies of data in each replica set. By default, all the reads and writes are performed on the primary replica set and using built in replication, the secondary replicas maintain duplicate copies of the primary. When the primary replica set fails, the replica set then conducts an evaluation process to select the secondary replica that can now serve as primary replica set.
The MongoDB document contains various fields which can be indexed, even those comprising within arrays and embedded documents.
5. File Storage
With features like scalability and replication, MongoDB works effectively as a file system. MongoDB drivers come with this function called Grid File System and are available for various development languages. MongoDB provides functions to cater file manipulation and content for the developers. The Grid File System is capable of segregating a file into parts and can store each part as a separate document, rather than storing it in a single document.
Selecting The Right Cloud Provider For A MongoDB Database
If an enterprise opts for hosting MongoDB via a cloud provider, then choosing the right cloud vendor will determine the effectiveness of deployment of the development and operational resources. Here are four sophisticated levels of cloud based MongoDB, which will guide a business to collaborate with the apt cloud provider:-
1. Do It Yourself Database
Procuring a generic hosted server from the provider of MongoDB cloud allows the user to select the specifications of the hardware, which can be a retarding task for people novice to this technology. Apart from the fact that scaling the architecture later can be less possible, the users must install and configure MongoDB and implement compacting, sharding, backups, monitoring and maintenance tasks to ensure smooth operation of MongoDB. Since resources get deployed before the development of the actual application, this level is perfect for users seeking to fulfil their testing needs due to its low cost aspect.
2. Provisioned Database
In this level, the cloud provider offers a set of standard specifications with the hardware and gets the MongoDB installed for the user with other IaaS hosting provider. Though the level of sophistication is not up to the mark, this level is generally opted for its speed of provisioning. The user will however, have to comply with the available choices of hardware and its impact on the performance and scale of MongoDB. Challenges may emerge in the form of maintenance and administration along with clustering and cluster management, which commands a big say on the availability, performance and scalability.
3. Automated Database
In comparison to the first two levels, this level represents more sophistication. Here, the provider of MongoDB offers a specific set of automation features along with configuration and provisioning options. What else get automatically performed is the scheduled backups, constant monitoring and maintenance activities. Despite varying level of automation, the user gets the liberty to delegate various management tasks to the automation suite. Moreover, while these features may feel sufficient, the user will still have to deal with the database, especially when the application grows and the existing architecture fails in balancing the rising load, thereby, adversely affecting the performance and scalability of the application.
4. Managed Database
Mongo DB Cloud providers offering the functionalities of the level 4 provide a vital benefit over the automated database, i.e., the user need not have to manage the database engine because it rather works as a service. The user will have to login through a hostname and a port and consume data service requiring no virtual maintenance and the service is driven by an architecture that prioritises availability, scalability and performance. For MongoDB, the architecture must deal with sharding and emphasize on the performance aspect ranging from network to storage choices to its configuration. The managed database is also capable of handling complexities in attaining uptime as it allocates instances across the hardware automatically, which ensures redundancy and avoids chances of failure. For proactively optimising the application, the MongoDB cloud vendors offer greater level of analytics and tooling as all tasks cannot be automated.
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